History could be traced through the invaluable benefits that medicinal leeches have brought to people’s lives. In ancient Greek history and mythology it is a well-known fact that the gates of Olympus – the mythical residence of the supreme Greek gods – were depicted with two leeches. A millennium ago, one of the first papers on the treatment of liver disease using leeches was created. The author of this work was Galen – a Greek court physician to the emperor and author of more than 120 studies in anatomy, physiology, pathology and pharmacology. He was also the first to propose leeches be exported to other countries. However, his idea was not supported in his country. Leech therapy had been implemented in Egypt for some time prior. By order of the Egyptian ruler Ptolemy I, pond leeches were caught and sold in Asia and Africa, transported on the Nile – Egypt’s main river. Subsequently, leech fishing has become one of the most important ways to earn an income in Egypt. Leech fishing played a significant role in the fishing policies pursued by the queen, who later became a legend. As you may have guessed, this queen was Cleopatra – the Egyptian queen, who ruled Egypt with her husband and brother Ptolemy in 69-30 years BC. e. After the death of Ptolemy, to keep the throne, she married Caesar. She was his mistress and later became his wife. As a queen, her only chance to retain power was to produce a successor to the thrown, however, Cleopatra could not get pregnant. Another legend from Greece tells about the white river Aheloi that goes on for 220 km. It received its name from the Greek god Achelous, son of Ocean and Tethys. According to ancient mythology, during a fight with Hercules, he turned first into a bull, from which Hercules broke off one horn, and then he turned into a leech. Hercules could not grasp his fingers around the elusive creature, and as a leech, Aheloi plunged into the deep river. The highlanders “Pinda”, inhabiting the riverbanks, believe that Aheloi under the guise of a leech, still lives in the river today After trying all folk remedies, ointments, drugs, rituals and spells and paid for the most expensive Egyptian healers, at the royal palace arrived a healer named Cleomenes and said he knew “the surest means”. As you may have guessed, it was medical leeches. After a few sessions of hirudotherapy, of course, all the while sharing a bed with her husband, Cleopatra realized that she was expecting a an heir. Following this miraculous healing, leeches were widely depicted on the walls of tombs for the next ten generations of Egyptian pharaohs.